Chemistry

UP (Ultra Premium) is among the highest quality olive oil in the world. It utilizes the broadest array of available tests and enforces the strictest limits on all chemical parameters.
Chemical Parameters Determination Indicators Extra Virgin Standard UP Standard
6.1 Free Fatty Acids (FFA) Free Fatty Acids are formed due to breakdown of the triacylglycerols. They are "free" when they are no longer bound to any other molecules. An elevated level can indicate poor quality or mishandled fruit, too much time between harvesting and extraction and high temperature during extraction. Units: % as oleic acid IOC limit ≤ 0.8 Units: % as oleic acid
UP limit ≤ 0.3
6.2 Oleic Acid The major fatty acid in olive oil is Oleic acid making up 55 to 85% of olive oil. The higher the oleic acid monounsaturated fat content translates to increased durability and shelf-life. Units: % as oleic acid IOC limit ≥55 Units: % as oleic acid
UP limit ≥ 65
6.3 Peroxide Value Peroxides are primary oxidation products that are formed when oils are exposed to oxygen. Measurement of rancidity in oil. Higher peroxide levels indicate oxidized or poor-quality oil and give an idea of the storage conditions. Units: mEQ O2/kg oil IOC limit≤20 Units: mEQ O2/kg oil
UP limit ≤9
6.4 UV Absorption UV spectrophotometric determination is a Secondary measurement of rancidity in oil. Elevated levels indicate oxidized or poor-quality oil, possible refining and/or adulteration with refined oil. Units: K1%/1cm IOC limits K232 ≤2.5, K270≤0.22, DeltaK≤0.01 Units: K1%/1cm UP limits
K232 ≤2.0 K270 ≤0.20, DeltaK ≤0.01
6.5 Phenolic Content (Polyphenols) Phenols are anti-oxidant substances in olive oil which help in slowing down the natural oxidative processes. Phenolic content decreases over time and is an indicator of freshness, with higher amounts improving shelf life. N/A Units: (as ppm caffeic acid)
UP minimum limit ≥ 130
6.6 DAGs Fresh olive oil has a much higher proportion of 1,2-diacylglycerols to Total diacylglycerols while refined oils have a higher level. The ratio of 1,2-diacylglycerols to the Total diacylglycerols are a useful indicator of fruit quality and acts as a snapshot of olive oil freshness. Units: %Total 1,2-diacylglycerols AOA limit≥35 Units: %Total 1,2-diacylglycerols
UP limit ≥*90
(immediately after production)
6.7 PPP Upon thermal degradation of olive oil, chlorophyll pigments break down to pheophytins and then to pyropheophytins. The ratio of pyropheophytins to the total pheophytins is useful for distinguishing fresh olive oil from refined, deodorized, or back blended oils. Units: %Total Pheophytins AOA limit≤17 Units: %Total Pheophytins
UP limit ≤5
(immediately after production)
*IOC-International Olive Council, AOA-Australian Olive Association
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